A Network+ Student's Blog

fleckfleck Banned Posts: 85 ■■□□□□□□□□
Here I'll be dumping my brain out ~4 times a week with everything I'm learning as I go along classes.

Why? #1 To help myself (writing stuff out, reading it again, and discussing it is the best way I learn) and #2 To help newbies (quick, simple and easy to understand Cliff's Notes, AKA Rix Notes). I can make stuff pretty simple.

Day 1 & Day 2 Part 1

There are two types of networks
Client/server and peer to peer.
- The advantages of a peer to peer network are that it is easier to set up and doesn't require a powerful server (less hardware and money).
- The advantages of a client/server network are scalability and manageability as well as security.

There are four main types of network topologies
- Bus: DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is connected through a single straight wire. The wire needs to be terminated at both ends to prevent bounce-back.
- Ring: DTE is connected in a ring formation. Here, one device is directly connected to the devices next to it. The data must travel through all of the devices on the way to the target device.
- Star: Sometimes referred to as 'hub and spoke', a star network is a spider-shaped network. In this setup, DTEs are individually connected to DCEs (Data Communication Equipment). The STAR is the most popular type of network topology. Easy enough to remember.
- Mesh/Hybrid: Also nicknamed 'mess', a mesh network is like a Star network, but connections are available directly between some of the different networked locations/devices and do not need a major DCE backbone to communicate.

Network geography
- LAN (Local Area Network): A network typically confined to a small area. Never leaves one building. Usually smaller than WANs and MANs.
- MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): This is the mid-sized network, or the network that we use as soon as we connect to the internet. This is a network which connects multiple buildings.
- WAN (Wide Area Network): The global network. WANs are what connect cities, states, countries and continents to each other.

Words to know:
Client - A networked computer that requests services from another computer.
Server - A computer using a NOS (Network Operating System) to manage shared resources.
Workstation - A computer of personal use that may or may not be connected to the network.
Host - A computer that enables resource sharing to clients.
Node - Any equipment connected to the network.
NIC - Network Interface Card. A device used to connect to the network's communication media (connection type).
Connectivity Device - Allows multiple networks or parts of a network to connect and exchange data.
Segment - A group of nodes which are connected to the greater network through a common link.
Backbone - 'A network of networks'. Connects segments and significant shared devices.
Topology - The physical layout of a network.
Protocol - Standard method or format for communication between networked devices.
Data Packets - Distinct data units exchanged between nodes.
Addressing - Scheme for assigning a unique identifying number to every node.
Transmission Media - Means through which data is transmitted and received.

Networking Standards Organizations
These are organizations which set the standards for networking practices. Different organizations handle different aspects of standards related to networking and telecommunication. Below are some of the most popular standards organizations.

- IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
- ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
- ANSI (American Nation Standards Institute)
- EIA (Electronic Industries Alliance)
- TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)
- ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
- ISOC (Internet Society)
- IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority)
- ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)

What each one of them does and how they contribute will be discussed later on. Beginning with IEEE standards, followed by ISO's OSI Model, and then who knows because I haven't gotten that far yet.

Popular IEEE Networking Standards
- 802.2 (Logical Link Control): Error and flow control over data frames.
- 802.3 (Ethernet): All forms of Ethernet media and interfaces.
- 802.5 (Token Ring): All forms of Token Ring media and interfaces.
- 802.11 (Wireless) Standards for Wireless Networking for many different broadcast frequencies and usage techniques.

As far as I know the newer IEEE standards are not required knowledge. I'm not going to copy the whole chart :)

Day 2 part 2

The OSI Model
Developed by ISO in the 1980s, it is a model for understanding and developing network connections between devices. It divides network communications into seven layers: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application.

Layer 7 - Application: Provides interface between software applications and network interpreting applications' requests and requirements.
Layer 6 - Presentation: Allows hosts and applications to use a common language; performs data formatting, encryption, and compression.
Layer 5 - Session: Establishes, maintains, and terminates user connections.
Layer 4 - Transport: Ensures accurate delivery of data through flow control, segmentation and reassembly, error correction, and acknowledgment.
Layer 3 - Network: Establishes network connections; translates network addresses into their physical counterparts and determines routing.
Layer 2 - Data Link: Packages data in frames appropriate to network transmission method
Layer 1 - Physical: Manages signaling to and from physical network connections

The seven layers function in a cyclical way, with data from one DTE traveling from layer 7 through 1, then layers 1 through 7 again to get to the other DTE.

The OSI Model, Visually Simplified
basicsosimodel.jpg

I'll describe the major aspects that each layer deals with a little later. In class right now.

Hope you guys are liking this so far.

Comments

  • mustwork02mustwork02 Member Posts: 13 ■□□□□□□□□□
    Great Info!!! This is the stuff we went over in Network+ class last night (1st night). Thanks for taking the time to post.
    In Everything Give Thanks! :thumbup:
  • veritas_libertasveritas_libertas CISSP, GIAC x5, CompTIA x5 Greenville, SC USAMember Posts: 5,746 ■■■■■■■■■■
    Looks like you are using the same book from my Network+ class at college! It's okay, if you mix it with the ExamCram2 book you will do fine...
  • fleckfleck Banned Posts: 85 ■■□□□□□□□□
    mustwork02 wrote: »
    Great Info!!! This is the stuff we went over in Network+ class last night (1st night). Thanks for taking the time to post.

    No prob :) Like I said it also helps me so it's really my pleasure. I figured if I'm gonna make some awesomely formatted highly detailed notes without fluff, I might as well share them for anyone who might find it useful.
  • fleckfleck Banned Posts: 85 ■■□□□□□□□□
    Looks like you are using the same book from my Network+ class at college! It's okay, if you mix it with the ExamCram2 book you will do fine...

    Yah, and I also watch Network+ videos; our teacher hasn't even mentioned DTE or DCE yet, that's just something I know from watching the videos. I don't know if I'll need ExamCram2. This Network+ course is split up into two 3-week classes with 3 Labs and 4 Tests each. I should be well prepared for the Network+ with just the book, teacher instruction, and hands-on experience. At least that's what the school says, that is their goal, and I'm watching those videos and taking notes on THEM, also...
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