Notes Prepared for Studying VLAN

shabeermshabeerm Posts: 29Member ■□□□□□□□□□
We know switch having one broadcast domain and multiple collision domain.In normal case when a switch sends a broadcast it will reach all ports.But in some cases we have to restrict that behavior of switches.For that we use Virtual LANs (or VLANs).
VLAN's separate a Layer-2 switch into multiple broadcast domains. Each VLAN is its own individual broadcast domain.Individual ports or groups of ports can be assigned to a specific VLAN. Only ports belonging to the same VLAN can freely communicate to each other.A router or layer 3 switch is needed for Inter-VLAN Communication.Broadcasts from one VLAN will never be sent out ports belonging to another VLAN. By default on Cisco Catalyst switches, all interfaces belong to VLAN 1. VLAN 1 is considered the Management VLAN (by default).


logical+vlan.jpg
What are the advantages of using vlans?
• A VLAN is a single broadcast domain which means that if a user in the engineering VLAN sends a broadcast frame only users in the same VLAN will receive it.
• Users are only able to communicate within the same VLAN (unless you use a router).
• Users don’t have to be grouped physically together, as you can see we have users in the Engineering vlan sitting on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd floor.


Terminologies associated with VLAN's
Trunking : Carrying multiple VLANs over the same physical connection.We must configure a trunk link between two switches.Only trunk links are capable of carrying multiple VLAN information
Native VLAN :By default, frames in this VLAN are untagged when sent across a trunk. VLAN 1 is called native VLAN (By default)
Access VLAN : The VLAN to which an access port is assigned
Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) :Can be used to automatically establish trunks between capable ports (insecure method!)
Switched Virtual Interface (SVI) : A virtual interface which provides a routed gateway into and out of a VLAN
Router on Stick : Method used for communicating Inter-VLAN's using a router


There are two trunking protocols we can use:
IEEE 802.1Q [dot1Q] : An open standard that is supported on switches from many vendors and most NICs.
Cisco ISL (Inter-Switch Link): An old Cisco proprietary protocol that is only supported on some Cisco switches.




IEEE 802.1Q
ISL (Inter-Switch Link)


Open Standard
Cisco Proprietary


Native VLAN is not tagged
Native Vlan is tagged


Tags Ethernet Frame
Encapsulate Ethernet Frame


Maximum VLANs : 4094
Maximum VLANs 1000


Header Size : 4 bytes
Header Size : 26 bytes




Different Switch Port Modes
Trunk : Forms an unconditional trunk
dynamic desirable : Attempts to negotiate a trunk with the far end
dynamic auto : Forms a trunk only if requested by the far end
access : Will never form a trunk


Let me give you an overview of the different switchport modes and the result:


access+trunk.jpg


Note : Older switches are dynamic desirable by default and modern switches are dynamic auto by default.Its better to manually configure trunk and give non-negociate command.The negotiation of the switchport status by using dynamic auto or dynamic desirable is called DTP (Dynamic Trunking Protocol). You can disable it completely by using the switchport nonegotiate command


VLAN information is not saved in the running-config or startup-config but in a separate file calledvlan.dat on your flash memory. If you want to delete the VLAN information you should delete this file by typing delete flash:vlan.dat.


VLAN Creation
Switch(config)# vlan 100
Switch(config-vlan)# name Engineering
Switch(config-vlan)#exit


Adding interface to VLAN
Switch(config)#interface fastethernet 0/1
Switch(config-if)#switchport mode access
Switch(config-if)# switchport nonegotiate
Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 3


Configuring Trunk Links
To manually configure a trunk port, for either ISL or 802.1Q tagging:

Switch(config)# interface fa0/24
Switch(config-if)# switchport trunk encapsulation< isl / dot1q >
Switch(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
Switch(config-if)# switchport nonegotiate


To change Native Vlan
Switch(config)#interface fa0/14
Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk native vlan 100


For security reasons it might be a good idea not to allow all VLANs on your trunk link. We can change this by using the switchport trunk allowed vlan command.


Switch(config)# interface fa0/24
Switch(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan remove 50-100
Switch(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 60-65


The first switchport command will prevent the trunk port from passing traffic from VLANs 50-100. The second switchport command will re-allow the trunk port to pass traffic from VLANs 60-65.


SVI Configuration
Switch(config)# interface vlan100
Switch(config-if)# ip address 192.168.100.1 255.255.255.0


Router on a Stick Configuration


STEP 1 : Switch configuration


SW1# configure terminal
SW1(config)# interface fa 0/1
SW1(config-if)# switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
SW1(config-if)# switchport mode trunk


The above steps complete the switch-side configuration.


STEP 2 - Router Configuration
We need to follow a similar configuration for our router to enable communication with our switch and allow all VLAN traffic to pass through and route as necessary.


R1# configure terminal
R1(config)# interface Fa 0/2
R1(config-if)# no ip address
R1(config-if)# no shutdown
R1(config-if)# interface Fa 0/2.1
R1(config-subif)# encapsulation dot1q 1 native
R1(config-subif)# ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-subif)# interface Fa 0/2.2
R1(config-subif)# encapsulation dot1q 2
R1(config-subif)# ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-subif)#exit


Show Commands
show vlan
show interface fa 0/24 switchport]
show interface trunk
show interface fa 0/24 trunk


INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
  • Which switching technology reduces the size of a broadcast domain?
  • Which protocols are used to configure trunking on a switch?
  • What is SVI ?
  • what is meant by "router on stick" ?
  • which is the default mode in switch ports ?
  • Difference between 802.1Q and ISL ?
  • Which are the two trunking protocols ?
  • Which Protocol encapsulate Etherframes ?
  • Which is the Vlan not tagged by 802.1Q ?
  • How to delete vlan information from switch ?
  • Difference between access and trunk mode ?
  • Difference between dynamic auto and dynamic desirable ?
  • what is the use of nonegociate command in switch ?
  • Explain different switch port modes ?
  • what is DTP ?
  • Can we see trunk interfaces in show vlan command ?
  • which is the command used to see trunk interfaces ?
  • what is the maximum number of vlans permitted in 802.1Q and ISL
  • what is the header size of 802.1Q ?
For CCNA / CCNP notes visit my blog http://sysnetnotes.blogspot.in/

Comments

  • Vask3nVask3n Posts: 517Member
    Great notes, but correct me if I'm wrong on this- I thought that the Odom book states that ISL does not use the concept of a native VLAN?
    Working on MS-ISA at Western Governor's University
  • bbarrickbbarrick Posts: 241Member
    In the new CCENT the switchport mode combination for access on one end and trunk on the other are listed as Do Not Use with a warning that this combination will cause problems.
  • shabeermshabeerm Posts: 29Member ■□□□□□□□□□
    Vask3n wrote: »
    Great notes, but correct me if I'm wrong on this- I thought that the Odom book states that ISL does not use the concept of a native VLAN?

    The difference between 802.1Q and ISL is that 802.1 tags the Ethernet frame while ISL encapsulates the Ethernet Frame.Coming to native vlan 802.1Q will not tag native Vlan.But ISL ensapsulate native vlan. Simply we can say that ISL consider native vlan as other vlans

    Hope this helps
    For CCNA / CCNP notes visit my blog http://sysnetnotes.blogspot.in/
  • shabeermshabeerm Posts: 29Member ■□□□□□□□□□
    bbarrick wrote: »
    In the new CCENT the switchport mode combination for access on one end and trunk on the other are listed as Do Not Use with a warning that this combination will cause problems.

    Yes.its true.Using access port at one end and trunk port at other end creates errors/Problems..We have limited connectivity and only VLAN 1 (native vlan) is allowed in this case
    For CCNA / CCNP notes visit my blog http://sysnetnotes.blogspot.in/
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